36c3 part 1

For many years I wanted to go to a CCC and this year because of different reasons I was finally able to go, this blog post is going to cover my planning and following posts will hopefully follow.


There is a log of coverage already how to prepare for a congress. Obviously, you need a ticket. I got my ticket thanks to a co-worker who is a pretty active member of a local chaos group, so was fairly easy (thx stean)

So after getting a ticket, a place to stay needs to be found. In most cases, I run with AirBnB, this time I was unable to find a cosy place nearby so I ended up doing a hotel reservation and I hope this was a good choice.

And last but not least, transportation. The way to go here for me is using german railway services, Deutsche Bahn. There is even a special page from Deutsche Bahn to get a special ticket for a lower price.


Of course, going to a conference you need your basic stuff as for every conference/travel, so I will not go into that too much. Especially for the congress, I tagged most of my gear that I plan to bring to the venue with my twitter handle and my domain so that it is easy to find the owner.

In addition to my normal list I packed the following items:

  • permanent markers (white/black) – maybe I can help with those
  • Magic ties (Amazon link) – I love those things
  • Stickers (mostly for FIRST)
  • batteries (AA+AAA) because why not.

A water bottle, because @c3himmel asked for it:


The tech also needs some extra time, in particular, updating every service/application running is critical. As I do not trust the wifi (as with any other wifi) VPN and a backup VPN was tested/updated.

To be able to work on stuff I also freed up some space on the devices, just in case.

Power up batteries, external power supplies and co. I do not want to run out of power.

Further reading

Fotos Maxdorf Triathlon 2019

Auch wenn ich leider nicht am Triathlon in Maxdorf teilnehmen konnte (irgendwann schaffe ich es mal an die Startlinie) haben wir das perfekte Wetter genutzt für einen kleinen Ausflug an die Radstrecke dieses top organisierten Wettkampfes, ich habe die Kamera ausgepackt und wir haben gute zwei Stunden die Radler angefeuert.

Aus eigener Erfahrung weiß ich, wie positiv selbst einzelne Anfeuerungen am Rand helfen. Und auch richtig cool wieviele Athleten sich für den Zuspruch bedankt und mit uns gelacht haben.

Da ich mir nicht sicher bin, ob es einen Foto Service gab, bzw, ich mit den Fotos nichts verdienen will, habe ich einfach alle ohne Aussortieren hochgeladen.

Die Bilder dürfen zur eigenen Verwendung unter CC-BY-SA genutzt werden unter der Nennung von Alexander Jäger als Fotograf und über einen Link hier her freue ich mich immer.

Viel Spaß mit den Fotos:


API of the month – apility

A friend of mine pitched the idea to start a blog series titled „API of the month“ based on my GitHub repository https://github.com/deralexxx/security-apis.

The idea of that series is to cover an API each month, provide some samples, talk about potential target audience and use cases for the API.

Service description

The first API to be covered is apility. The service is marketed as „Minimal and Simple Anti-Abuse API for Everyone.“ and the web page starts with a Google-like search mask.

apility screenshot

API documentation

The API documentation is pretty comprehensive and available via web page: https://apility.io/apidocs/. The documentation also gives nice curl examples for every API endpoint that can be copy-pasted.

apility APi documentation

API pricing

The API itself is free but is limited in regards to API calls that can be done. pricing options are available on https://apility.io/pricing/


As an example I tried to get ratings for IPs / domains for a recent APT OSINT report.

To get started you need to sign up and verify your account via an email that you receive shortly after signing up.

I took the tweet from the malwrhunterteam: https://twitter.com/malwrhunterteam/status/1126894905668849664 to test my scripts and also the famous trafficconverter(.)biz

Especially the trafficconverter domain was listed by the tool:

{„response“: {„domain“: {„blacklist“: [„ISC-DOMAINS-LOW“, „ISC-DOMAINS-MEDIUM“], „blacklist_mx“: [], „blacklist_ns“: [], „mx“: [], „ns“: [], „score“: -1}, „ip“: {„address“: „“, „blacklist“: [], „is_quarantined“: false, „score“: 0}, „source_ip“: {„address“: „“, „blacklist“: [], „is_quarantined“: false, „score“: 0}, „score“: -1}, „type“: „baddomain“}

The scripts I used are available on github:

import requests
from configparser import ConfigParser

config = ConfigParser()
APIKEy = config.get('API', 'APIKEY')

url = "https://api.apility.net/baddomain/"

headers = {
'accept': "application/json",
'x-auth-token': APIKEy

f = open('./input.txt', 'r')
for line in f.readlines():
print("Will investigate "+line)
response = requests.request("GET", url+line, headers=headers, verify=False)



It should be noted that there is also a python package available at https://github.com/Apilityio/python-cli and can be installed (but I have not tested it) via:

pip install apilityio-cli


easy_install apilityio-cli

Target audience

The target audience for the API as well as the service is:

  • sysadmins who want to use the offered data to sharpen perimeter security tools
  • Researchers to add more data points to their research
  • Threat Intelligence professionals as a data source
  • Incident responders to monitor if any of the ASN / domains they are responsible for is added to one of the blacklists

New project: Awesome security videos

Cyber security is a global issue but most people interested in the topic are not able to visit the big conferences because they are expensive or because they are not allowed to travel to the destinations.

But thanks to the evolving technology of video hosting sites and the fact that capturing talks on video is more and more getting the new norm, a lot of good security talks can be watched online.

Looking for good videos, I ended up in either a total mess of crappy videos or pretty good videos where not pushed up on the result pages by video hosting platforms because low number of views (most security talks at the moment to not attract that much audience). This is when I started a new repository called: „awesome security videos

The idea is simple, collect and curate a list of online videos that is good from a content and a presentation point of view.

Because it is on github, I hope for others to contribute ideas, I will also have a close look on twitter, so feel free to send me a DM to https://twitter.com/alexanderjaeger

Also all videos will be added to a public youtube list: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLbE0nb-0VwXRB7kjFLlc-RBc4ihCkcP-A

Convert curl to python request

While writing some code, I stumbled across a API documentation, that only had curl examples (prefer to have curl examples over no examples at all) but I had some troubles converting it to proper python code and a friend recommended a page called: https://curl.trillworks.com/

Convert curl syntax to Python, Node.js, R, PHP, Strest, Go, JSON, Rust

And it is even available on github. How cool is that?

This blogpost is only to save it as kind of a bookmark for future coding adventures.

CobaltStrike data with passiveSSL

Today, FoxIT published an blog post with an github repository listing potential CobaltStrike servers for the last few years.

I was interested in the data so I processed the data with my osint-timesketch scripts to add passiveDNS and passiveSSL data. I only took the IPs that where last seen >2019 to not create to much data.

Adding it to timesketch was pretty straight forward:

sudo tsctl csv2ts -f output_cobalt.csv --name cobalt_strike
Indexing progress: 23000 events
Total events: 23650

Some quick findings, after searching for google I discovered several weird certificates, among them.

Some weird things: safebrowsing(.)net is not owned by google, the IP to that certificate accoring to Virustotal https://www.virustotal.com/#/ip-address/ is resolving to microsoftapis(.)com – for sure nothing good.

Some other funny things where found by a quick look…

Hack me if you can

Hack me if you can

Happy Hacker fake CA

Happy Hacker Fake CA

This outlines the importance of:

  • Share the data (kudos FoxIT!)
  • Provide researchers access to data sets (thx to CIRCL and Virustotal!)

My dataset is available on github.

Talent gap in security

Screenshot Github repository

There are a whole bunch of articles outlining the talent gap in security related positions. More and more jobs require IT skills and IT systems are more and more integrated in all areas of our life with an dramatic increase of open positions in security and privacy.

People living in areas like SF / silicon valley, New York or Zurich can find easily new jobs within days, but those locations are also very expensive and some companies can not hire there.

There is a good opportunity to fight the talent gap: hiring remote

This post is not to outline the benefits of shortcomings of working / hiring remote but the fact that it is very hard for candidates to find companies welcoming remote security minded people.

On the other side, companies have a hard job, market themselves against the big brands to attract remote people.

That combined is the reason I created yet another list on github, called companies-hiring-security-remote. It is a curated list and open for issues / pull requests to act as a platform for job seeking people and companies to give them a little more visibility.

I really hope that this will help people and I am happy to receive feedback.

Link to the repository: https://github.com/deralexxx/companies-hiring-security-remote

Bitcoin transaction in timelines

Investigation bad people might involve bitcoin, the blockchain technology is very popular among criminals, as it is easy to use and „untraceable“ [1]. E.g. in most ransomware cases like „Ryuk“ [2] the company Crowdstrike has listed several bitcoin wallets, that they attribute to the threat actor.

How can that information help your investigation / your intelligence gathering? IN certain ways, you could track your own wallets for transactions to these wallets. Another aspect, that this blogpost will cover on is the timeline aspect of it.

As bitcoin transactions make use of the blockchain, who is public by design, it is possible to:

  • tell, how many bitcoins a certain wallet currently holds
  • see transactions from the past

The second aspect is what I want to focus on, because if we have a look at the transactions, we might be able to identify the point in time a certain group was active and enhance our other DFIR activities enriched with that information. The transaction log is like your journal of your bank account, it tells basically who is transferring money to a wallet and where the bitcoins are transferred to.

In the example above, the bitcoin wallets we are interested in are (Source Crowdstrike Blog post):

BTC AddressTotal ReceivedNo ReceivedTotal Value (USD)

Source of transaction information

There is a whole bunch of public webpages who give transaction history for a given wallet, but as it should be an automated step, the goal is to have a page with an API, after some searching I found: https://chain.so/api .

Making the call

Doing the API call to get transaction information is pretty simple:

GET /api/v2/address/{NETWORK}/{ADDRESS} 

That will give you the following information

  "status": "success",
  "data": {
    "network": "DOGE",
    "address": "DM7Yo7YqPtgMsGgphX9RAZFXFhu6Kd6JTT",
    "balance": "31.03885339",
    "received_value": "25828731.93733507",
    "pending_value": "0.0",
    "total_txs": 225,
    "txs": [ ... ]

Which is exactly what we need, with some Python JSON parsing, it is easy to get the info we want – the code I am using is available on https://github.com/deralexxx/osint_to_timesketch

After that we have an CSV with the date, the transaction happened, the raw information from the API and some meta data, enough to bake into a timeline.


The script is already made to output CSV files ready for importing them into Timesketch, as I found it to be the ideal tool to work with data points related to timestamps. Importing the CSV is straight forward and explained in the official documentation page [3].

The timeline csv looks like the following:

CSV of BTC history

Making it pretty

Importing it into Timesketch, the timeline looks very nice:

BTC transactions in Timesketch

Added Value

Now what is the added value for investigations? The above is another layer of data points /evidence. It can be used to weight limit findings in your organisation, e.g. you assume you are hit by a phishing campaign, if your phishing campaign was seen a lot earlier or a lot later than the transactions above display, it is unlikely you are hit by the same campaign. It can also be used to make a case against individuals if enriched by host forensics – your imagination is the limit.


I hope the article is helpful and the scripts can be used, let me know via comments within the blog, issues on github or twitter messages https://twitter.com/alexanderjaeger if you have any questions, improvements.

Thx for reading

Further reading / references

  • [1] http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/03/why-criminals-cant-hide-behind-bitcoin
  • [2] https://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/big-game-hunting-with-ryuk-another-lucrative-targeted-ransomware/
  • [3] https://github.com/google/timesketch/blob/master/docs/CreateTimelineFromJSONorCSV.md

Autotimeliner to CyberChef to Timesketch

As you might know, I love to combine several OpenSource tools to get things done. One thing I wanted to play for some weeks is Autotimeliner by Andrea Fortuna.This tool is made to extract events from an Memory Image to combine it into a timeline. If you have a timeline, what comes next? Of course, putting it into Timesketch. So let’s give it a try.

We start with a memory dump from a Stuxnet infection from https://github.com/ganboing/malwarecookbook. Download the four files, extract them and you are good to go.



Installation is pretty easy, install Volatility either via pre-compiled binary or install it manually, see the Volatility installation wiki for further information.

Test it running:

vol.py -v


To install sleuthkit run:

(You need that for mactime)

brew install sleuthkit


sudo apt-get install sleuthkit

Installation Autotimeliner

Simply clone the GitHub repository:

git clone https://github.com/andreafortuna/autotimeliner.git

Run it

python autotimeline.py -f /Users/foobar/Downloads/stuxnet.vmem.zip/stuxnet.vmem -p WinXPSP2x86 -t 2009-10-20..2018-10-21

That might take some time depending on your hardware.

Now you have an csv file around 5.6 MB.

                _     _______ _                _ _
     /\        | |   |__   __(_)              | (_)
    /  \  _   _| |_ ___ | |   _ _ __ ___   ___| |_ _ __   ___ _ __
   / /\ \| | | | __/ _ \| |  | | '_ ` _ \ / _ \ | | '_ \ / _ \ '__|
  / ____ \ |_| | || (_) | |  | | | | | | |  __/ | | | | |  __/ |
 /_/    \_\__,_|\__\___/|_|  |_|_| |_| |_|\___|_|_|_| |_|\___|_|

- Automagically extract forensic timeline from volatile memory dump -

Andrea Fortuna - andrea@andreafortuna.org - https://www.andreafortuna.org

*** Processing image /Users/foobar/Downloads/stuxnet.vmem.zip/stuxnet.vmem
*** Using custom profile: WinXPSP2x86
*** Creating memory timeline......done!
*** Creating shellbags timeline......done!
*** Creating $MFT timeline......done!
*** Merging and filtering timelines......done!
Timeline saved in /Users/foobar/Downloads/stuxnet.vmem.zip/stuxnet.vmem-timeline.csv

The format used for the dates is not compatible with Timesketch:

more /Users/foobar/Downloads/stuxnet.vmem.zip/stuxnet.vmem-timeline.csv
Date,Size,Type,Mode,UID,GID,Meta,File Name
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:04,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,84995,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Lib\SITE-P~1\setuptools-0.6c11-py2.6.egg-info\TOP_LE~1.TXT (Offset: 0x8a28c00)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:04,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,85000,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Lib\SITE-P~1\SETUPT~1.EGG\DEPEND~1.TXT (Offset: 0x75e4000)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06,0,m..b,---a-----------,0,0,84985,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Scripts\EASY_I~1.PY (Offset: 0x91b9400)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,84986,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Scripts\EASY_I~1.MAN (Offset: 0x91b9800)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,84987,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Scripts\EASY_I~1.EXE (Offset: 0x91b9c00)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,84988,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Scripts\EASY_I~2.MAN (Offset: 0x1042f000)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06,0,m..b,---a-----------,0,0,84989,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Scripts\EASY_I~2.PY (Offset: 0x1042f400)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,84990,"[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Scripts\EASY_I~2.EXE (Offset: 0x1042f800)"
Tue Oct 20 2009 21:21:26,0,...b,---a-----------,0,0,66083,"[MFT STD_INFO] Documents and Settings\Administrator\Desktop\SysinternalsSuite\ZoomIt.exe (Offset: 0x1a8a5c00)"
Wed Oct 21 2009 00:02:28,76800,m...,---a-----------,0,0,65342,"[MFT FILE_NAME] Program Files\NTCore\Explorer Suite\Tools\DRIVER~1.EXE (Offset: 0x14b9c800)"
Wed Oct 21 2009 00:02:28,76800,m...,---a-----------,0,0,65342,"[MFT FILE_NAME] Program Files\NTCore\Explorer Suite\Tools\DriverList.exe (Offset: 0x14b9c800)"
Wed Oct 21 2009 00:02:28,76800,m...,---a-----------,0,0,65342,"[MFT STD_INFO] Program Files\NTCore\Explorer Suite\Tools\DRIVER~1.EXE (Offset: 0x14b9c800)"
Wed Oct 21 2009 18:25:52,780800,m...,---a-----------,0,0,65338,"[MFT FILE_NAME] Program Files\NTCore\Explorer Suite\TASKEX~1.EXE (Offset: 0x14b1b800)"

so we need to adjust that. In the past, I used an own developed python script https://github.com/deralexxx/timesketch-tools/tree/master/date_converter for that, but that does not really scale, so I considered another option.


An open source tool by GCHQ: https://gchq.github.io/CyberChef/

A simple, intuitive web app for analysing and decoding data without having to deal with complex tools or programming languages. CyberChef encourages both technical and non-technical people to explore data formats, encryption and compression.



git clone https://github.com/gchq/CyberChef


Now open it

From the CSV that was generated, use your favourite tool to extract the first column of the csv which should look like that:

Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:04
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:04
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06
Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06
Tue Oct 20 2009 21:21:26
Wed Oct 21 2009 00:02:28

Now use the following CyberChef Recipe


And paste them all into input. It will result in a file you can download with the output.

Now the output txt has two CSV columns, you need to combine them with your autotimeliner csv to have the following headers:

datetime	timestamp	timestamp_desc
2009-10-20T12:08:04+0000	1256040484000	stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline
2009-10-20T12:08:04+0000	1256040484000	stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline
2009-10-20T12:08:06+0000	1256040486000	stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline
2009-10-20T12:08:06+0000	1256040486000	stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline
2009-10-20T12:08:06+0000	1256040486000	stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline
2009-10-20T12:08:06+0000	1256040486000	stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline

Now the csv should like like:

more stuxnet.vmem.zip/stuxnet.vmem-timeline_timesketch.csv 

2009-10-20T12:08:04+0000,1256040484000,stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline,Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:04,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,84995,[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Lib\SITE-P~1\setuptools-0.6c11-py2.6.egg-info\TOP_LE~1.TXT (Offset: 0x8a28c00)
2009-10-20T12:08:04+0000,1256040484000,stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline,Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:04,0,ma.b,---a-----------,0,0,85000,[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Lib\SITE-P~1\SETUPT~1.EGG\DEPEND~1.TXT (Offset: 0x75e4000)
2009-10-20T12:08:06+0000,1256040486000,stuxnet.vmem_Mem_Dump_Timeline,Tue Oct 20 2009 12:08:06,0,m..b,---a-----------,0,0,84985,[MFT STD_INFO] Python26\Scripts\EASY_I~1.PY (Offset: 0x91b9400)

There is one little caveat, you need to add „“ around the message, because some values might break the Import process.

That can now be imported into Timesketch

Et voila, a timesketched Memory Dump

Combining Virustotal, PassiveSSL and Timesketch


Playing with Timesketch for a while and working on some OSINT timelines I was tired to investigate MD5 and domains / ips all manually so I tried to automate some of the work. Why is that important? If you have a list of hashes, domains and IPs, you of course can check your SIEM, EDR solution etc – but what if you have a hit? Would it benefit your investigation to at least have an idea of the timeframe something was used by attackers or seen in the wild?

Most shared indicators are lacking the timeframe, so we need to add those values by external information on our own.


There is no need to further explain Virustotal, it is basically a huge dataset of malware and information about domains and ips.

In particular information about a specific point in time a domain was seen to point to an IP and back is good to know to build your timeline.

E.g. if you have verymalicious.com pointing to all the time, only on one day it was pointing to – hits in your infrastructure should be higher escalated if seen during that day, out of that time window it might still be important, but not as urgent as during that day.

In regards to hash intelligence, Virustotal is nice, because if you add the info, when the last scan date of a file was, you can at least tell, that the file was known after that day.

I asked Virustotal to add more information they already have to the API and we will have wait till it is exposed:

  • First seen in the wild
  • First uploaded to VT
  • PE compile time


Alexandre Dulaunoy and Eireann Leverett have given a talk at the FIRST conference in Berlin back in 2015, which took my attention, but it took some time till I really had time to implement something to use the idea.

The basic idea is that, out of several sources, passive ssl services such as CIRCL passiveSSL collect certificates and expose information via API.

For timeline analysis in particular, the following dates are important as they might shine some light of attacker activity:

  • first seen in the wild
  • last seen in the wild
  • not use before
  • not use after

If you now add all of the information above, you might be able to get a better idea, when an IP / Domain / File was active.

This information should then be fed into a Timesketch investigation.


Using some sample data from APT33: https://github.com/deralexxx/osint-timelines/blob/master/2018/2018-12-21.OVERRULED:-Containing-a-Potentially-Destructive-Adversary-APT33.csv

Combining with the python script below with the following indicators:



Domains resolving to IPs

It is transparent when the hashes have been last scanned and what Ips resolve to the domains mentioned in the report.

The other thing is that right before some malware was mentioned by Fireeye in the report, SSL certificates became invalid:

SSL Certificate

Of course the individual SSL certificate can also been investigated:


The example is available on github: https://github.com/deralexxx/osint_to_timesketch

Next steps

  • Waiting for VT to expose more things
  • Improve the script
  • Introduce multiple pDNS providers